Tomato leaf diseases: descriptions with photos, treatment
Of all vegetable crops, tomatoes are one of the most popular. They are even grown at home on balconies and window sills, what to speak of beds or greenhouses. There are more and more varieties with high immunity, but even they still get sick. And first of all, most diseases affect the leaves!
Pimples and tubercles on the leaves
In addition to spots on the leaves, tubercles, growths, pimples and other obscure formations may appear. With tomatoes, this does not happen too often, but it's better to get ready!
- Gall aphid leaves on the leaves of the tubercle in those places where it arranges the masonry;
- Large plaques of the same color as the leaves often remain if the shield has settled on the tomatoes;
- Leaves of seedlings are covered with small pimples after hypothermia or a sharp change in conditions;
- When planting tomatoes in a greenhouse - swelling and growths appear due to metabolic disturbances, because the soil is warm and the air is cold;
- Small green pimples are dropsy or odema, which manifests itself due to hypothermia, overflow or lack of light.
Leaves turn yellow and dry
Many gardeners do not pay attention to the yellowness of tomato leaves, because they consider it a completely natural process. But this does not always happen, so it is better to play it safe and rule out less pleasant reasons.
- Tomato leaves turn yellow after hypothermia in the ground, when hardening seedlings or on the balcony;
- If the tomatoes do not have enough moisture, they turn yellow and dry, and if on the contrary there is too much water, they turn yellow and rot;
- Lack of sun leads to a violation of photosynthesis and chlorosis. And its excess can cause burns or stress in young and sensitive seedlings;
- The veins remain green and the leaves turn yellow if the tomatoes lack iron. But with a sulfur deficiency, the veins turn red;
- The leaves turn yellow, and the veins become brown or purple with mycoplasmosis. In this case, the upper shoots first suffer;
- The lower leaves turn yellow and wither if the soil is too poor and fertilizers are urgently needed;
- Mosaic yellow spots can look and diverge differently, because there are several types of mosaics. But in any case, it is an incurable virus, and the affected tomatoes will have to be destroyed.
Brown spots on tomato leaves
Dark spots of all shades from red to brown remain due to fungus, bacteria or viruses. In the initial stages, the fungus is successfully treated with fungicides, but with more serious diseases it is not so simple.
- Brown spots that spread rapidly over all leaves, and then become covered with plaque - a sign of late blight;
- Due to bacterial spotting, the affected areas gradually soften and turn into ulcers;
- Because of bacterial cancer, apart from spots on the leaves, tomatoes and tumors disperse along the tomatoes. It is impossible to cure such a plant, so it must be destroyed as soon as possible;
- If the root system of tomatoes is destroyed by nematodes, this manifests itself in the form of asymmetric brown spots with yellowness and curved stems;
- If on the reverse side brown spots are covered with a velvety coating of olive color - this is cladosporiosis.
Tomatoes turn black leaves
Leaves of young tomato seedlings may turn black due to disturbances in agricultural technology, because seedlings are very sensitive to conditions. In other cases, these symptoms are already much more dangerous and sometimes incurable diseases.
- Spots of a dark, almost black or graphite hue are a sign of brown spotting. At first they are brown, but very quickly darken;
- Alternariosis provokes the appearance of black necrotic foci on tomatoes;
- Cercosporosis often affects peppers and eggplant, but is also a threat to tomatoes. In this case, the spots are black, with a whitish middle and a greenish halo.
White plaque on tomato leaves
Periodically, the leaves of the tomatoes are covered with a thin whitish cobweb - but it has nothing to do with spiders. But if the plaque looks soft and velvety - these are spores of the fungus.
- The spider mite creates the same web around the leaves and shoots. A scattering of small black bugs is usually hidden at the base of large leaves;
- Powdery mildew is the main and most common cause of white plaque, and it affects almost all cultures;
- Downy mildew is almost not distinguished by symptoms and is treated with the same fungicides. She just has a different pathogen and is darker;
- Gray rot also leaves faded spots with a light and as if soft coating. But in this case they are rather grayish, which is obvious from the name.
Pale and light leaves
Old leaves may fade from the fact that the plant directs resources to more promising parts. But if the tomatoes fade haphazardly or evenly - perhaps the reason is different.
- Tomato leaves turn pale and wither if they lack manganese;
- With a nitrogen deficiency, the green mass immediately grows faded and weak;
- Some types of mosaics can provoke not yellow, but white spots;
- In case of violations of the temperature and humidity conditions, drafts or frosts, tomatoes can also lighten.
Tomato leaves curl
Leaves can be deformed almost arbitrarily, so be sure to inspect them well. Worst of all, when they immediately grow damaged or abnormal - perhaps the virus has already infected tomatoes at the cellular level.
- The leaves turn yellow, dry and curl from the tips if the tomatoes are sorely lacking calcium;
- With a lack of boron, the leaves are deformed from the base, and not from the tips;
- Often the lack of lighting and air leads to deformation and twisting. This happens when the planting is very thickened and the intervals between the seedlings are not respected;
- Verticillosis leads to the fact that the leaves of the tomatoes wither, curl, dry, but do not fall.