Diseases of laying hens and broilers: symptoms, treatment
As chickens are ubiquitous, they are considered just as painful and problematic. Conditions, nutrition, stress - all this instantly affects the health of laying hens and broilers. Even hardy breeds give owners a lot of problems. Therefore, it is so important to quickly identify symptoms and get treatment!
Viruses and infections
These are the most common and most numerous diseases that are transmitted through the chicken coop literally before our eyes. One infected chicken is enough to spread the problem to the rest.
Perhaps the most well-known bird disease for consumers initially affects young animals. Salmonella safely spreads with water, shells and almost anything, so it subsequently often affects people.
Symptoms are watery eyes, shortness of breath, refusal to eat, frothy diarrhea and exhaustion. With development, the joints are broken, tumors and swelling appear, the bird cannot stand up normally. Need isolation and a double course of streptomycin, furazolidone or analogues.
Different strains pose a different threat, but develop in approximately the same scenario. Symptoms - inflammation of the mucous membranes, profuse discharge, wheezing, swelling and internal hemorrhage. Gastrointestinal disturbances gradually appear, the bird assumes unnatural positions. There is no treatment, so the affected chickens are destroyed, and the chicken coop is thoroughly disinfected.
Most often, it affects the chicken coop in a sluggish chronic form, but in about 1 out of 10 cases it becomes acute. Symptoms - respiratory failure, hoarse cough, mucus from the nose, sneezing, upset stomach. Treatment is a course of antibiotics and isolation, because even after recovery, the chicken still spreads the infection for some time.
The bacterium rapidly spreads through eggs, water and through the air. Young and adult birds are susceptible to it, and even chicks can already hatch sick. Observe precautions because pullorosis can be transmitted to humans!
Symptoms - faded crest with earrings, white or yellow diarrhea, impaired coordination. Birds may fall on their backs or fall to their feet. After the initial exacerbation, the disease becomes sluggish chronic, and the bird withers before our eyes. Treatment - isolation and antibiotics Neomycin, Biomycin or analogues.
This is viral paralysis and a kind of analogue to the syndrome of unexpected childhood death, from which very small chicks die up to 2 weeks. First of all, the virus affects the eyes - soon after the change in the shade of the iris, the bird goes blind. The functioning of the nervous system and musculoskeletal system is disrupted, tumors develop. The disease is not treated, so the bird will have to be destroyed.
Small chickens suffer from a disease that is also called eimeriosis, and it is transmitted by contact, even six months after treatment. Adult broilers almost do not suffer from it, because over time, immunity strengthens.
Symptoms - apathy, minimal activity, lack of appetite and subsequent exhaustion. Drops of blood appear in the green feces, feathers look shabby, and the comb with earrings fade. Treatment - antibiotics and a strengthening vitamin course.
Avian cholera is terrible for all birds, and all carry it in a row, and even rodents. Symptoms - heavy breathing, wheezing, lethargy and apathy, increased thirst, flushing, greenish diarrhea with bloody discharge.
In more advanced cases, the crest with earrings become bluish, and the joints noticeably deform. Treatment is disinfection, sulfamide and intensive vitamin therapy.
The virus rapidly affects the nervous system and respiration, and most often leads to the death of small chickens. Symptoms - pus, impaired coordination and swallowing reflex. The bird constantly lifts its head, rushes about and dies from an incurable infection for 3 days.
This is another disease that can be transmitted to humans. It develops mainly due to violation of hygiene and sanitary requirements. In adult chickens, it passes chronically, but in young animals it is usually acute. Birds cough, wheeze, become lethargic, constantly sleep, and drink a lot. Treatment - antibiotics and a vitamin and mineral complex.
Behind the complex name lies viral bronchitis, which is transmitted through the air and through objects. Even after cleaning the chicken coop, the threat that the pathogen remains somewhere remains for another year. The disease has a huge mortality rate of up to 70%.
Symptoms are also characteristic of ordinary bronchitis - breathing problems, cough, mucus on the beak, temperature. Layers are rushing less and less, but in the meantime their kidneys are suffering. Nephrosonephritis is incurable and dangerous, so the sick bird must be destroyed.
The reason for the appearance of the disease in the chicken coop is almost impossible to detect, because even insects can carry it. Symptoms - respiratory failure, beak odor, spots and yellow scabs on the body. Due to poor health and constant scabies, the chicken gradually weakens.
Only the earliest stages can be completely cured - antibiotics and intensive disinfection with boric acid and furatsilin are needed. In a more advanced case, birds are destroyed because they become too dangerous for others.
Insects most often appear if the chicken house does not have the right conditions. In order not to have to deal with them, it is important to monitor sanitation and a properly balanced diet. For treatment in all cases, treatment with special drugs from pests and parasites is needed.
These are small pests that hide on the skin and eat down with feathers. Poohoedy are a kind of bird alternative to lice or fleas, and you can find them by small holes in the plumage, the appearance of bald patches and constant scabies in chicken.
Despite the presence of poohoids, common fleas may appear in chickens. As it develops, the lesion becomes visually noticeable, because the number of individuals is growing. The bird languishes from exhaustion, and parasites are rapidly spreading throughout the chicken coop.
Several species of ticks readily feed on bird blood. The chicken constantly itches, trying to clean feathers, gaining weight poorly, and later bloody spots and abrasions become visible.
These are worms and those same internal parasites that settle in the body of birds. Symptoms - rapid weight loss, poor appetite, pallor of earrings and scallops. It is necessary to treat the whole chicken coop from parasites with the help of medicinal feed additives.
Fungus is such an omnipresent problem that it affects literally all living things: from plants to humans. Layers and broilers also failed to avoid the problem.
In humans, a similar disease is called thrush, and the pathogen in all cases survives on the mucous membrane. As soon as immunity falls, the fungus develops rapidly.
Symptoms - changes in the beak, goiter and esophagus, shortness of breath, nausea and diarrhea, curdled plaque. Treatment - antifungal drugs, lubricants, good nutrition, vitamin A.
The fungus spreads from diseased chicken to healthy, and even to eggs. Often this happens in an incubator, where optimal conditions are created for spores. Among other reasons - disturbed temperature and humidity conditions, a large concentration of birds, poor or moldy food, dampness.
Adult chickens are most often cured and develop immunity, but young animals die. Symptoms - drowsiness, lethargy, shortness of breath, indigestion, mucous discharge, cramps and paralysis. With fungus, the most important thing is prevention in the form of regular disinfection and hygiene standards. For treatment, special drugs based on imidazole are used.
If at least one bird in the chicken coop begins to move strangely, limp and collapse - this is an occasion to immediately examine its legs. Basically, leg diseases are safely treated, but a weak individual needs to be isolated.
Any mechanical damage, bruises, pinching, dislocation or even a deficiency of vitamins lead to it. In broilers, the reason is often too fast weight gain, to which the joints do not have time to adapt. If this is an injury, then you must definitely find and eliminate the cause. If the source of the problem is not found, contact your veterinarian.
The disease manifests itself literally from the first weeks of life, and the chicken walks as if on the side of the foot. As such, there is no treatment, so it is important to maintain proper conditions for keeping the bird: from floor temperature to nutrition.
This disease is called “perosis” and is especially evident in broilers, which are rapidly gaining mass. For prevention, you need a complete diet and vitamin B, otherwise with a high probability in the future, the chicken may not survive at all. The joints turn out and look unnatural, which often leads to complications.
Oddly enough, chickens also suffer from arthritis, in which joints become inflamed and sore. The paw at the bend looks unnaturally large and very hot. For treatment, antibiotics and antivirals are needed, and most importantly, well-established care and nutrition.
Unlike crooked fingers, curly hair is the result of paralysis of the limb. It will not be possible to straighten the paws, but there is a chance to stabilize the situation in the early days due to the multivitamin complex and riboflavins.
This disease has many other names - scabies or knemidocoptosis. It is contagious, and a small scabies mite provokes its appearance. On the paws of the chicken there are growths, white plaque, open wounds. For treatment, treatment with a soap solution, antiseptics, creolin or similar means is necessary.
Other common chicken diseases
Infections, fungi and parasites - this is not a complete list of problems that the owner of the chicken coop will face. Here are some more common diseases that broilers and laying hens suffer from!
Simply put, this is a blockage of goiter, which happens due to poor nutrition and fungus. The chicken does not eat, loses weight, an acidic or putrid odor appears from the beak, and due to constant inflammation, the goiter becomes huge.
The inflammation around the cloaca manifests itself in the abuse of exclusively dry food. In the worst case, edema begins, inversion, and in laying hens, the oviduct is disturbed and the oviduct falls out. The eggs literally remain in the stomach, and this leads to severe poisoning and disruption of all processes.
Violations and inflammation of the digestive tract occur due to malnutrition. Chickens eat poorly, move little, weaken and languish. In acute forms, a greenish diarrhea appears with a putrid odor and particles of undigested food.
This is another violation of the digestive tract, which leads to the inability of the body to digest food. Leftovers roam and rot right in the stomach, leading to severe poisoning.
Active feather loss can be seasonal, but if it becomes an anomalous tendency, measures need to be taken. Adjust your diet, stock up on vitamins, treat chickens from parasites.
This is a neurological problem that develops due to constant noise around the chicken coop or other stresses. Birds are aggressive, nervous, randomly running in circles, which gradually leads to their exhaustion.