Irises (60 photos): types and features of care
For the wonderful and unusual coloring, the Greeks named the irises in honor of the goddess of the rainbow. And for the amazing form in the people, they are sometimes called "northern orchids." According to legend, these flowers appeared by the sea, where they sprouted from the tears of a woman waiting for her husband-sailor during a storm. Like small lighthouses, bright buds illuminated the path. Today we will talk about irises and caring for them!
As soon as irises are not called in different regions - killer whales, roosters, magpies or plaits. They are notable for the bizarre shape of the petals, painted in all kinds of colors of the rainbow. Leaves are long and flat, with xiphoid shape and with a waxy surface.
The iris flowers are large and fragrant, of six petals: three are turned upside down and three more are fused and raised up. They grow alone, but occasionally more voluminous inflorescences are found. Irises are rather capricious in leaving, but instead of a flowerbed, it will delight with unprecedented beauty from May to July.
Types of irises
Irises are found all over the world, and the number of varieties is in the hundreds. Among them there are bulbous and rhizomatous - they differ slightly in the specifics of planting. Some varieties bloom twice - a second time closer to autumn.
The most common among us are Germanic or bearded irises, which got their name for the characteristic shape of the flower. Among them there are many interesting multi-colored varieties with smooth or wavy petals - Acoma, Bewilderbest, Baltic Sea and others.
The flowers of Siberian irises open up to 10 cm, and most often their shades are in blue-violet tones. This is a tall view - up to 80 cm, and yet it has absolutely no characteristic iris smell.
This is almost the only group of irises that prefers moist swampy soil. Flowers most often - all shades of yellow, lemon or cream, as in Umkirch, Golden Queen or Flore Pleno.
Japanese irises, which are also called xiphoid, are dotted with large blue flowers up to 25 cm. In the middle latitudes, the varieties Nessa-No-Mai, Vasily Alferov and Solveig perfectly take root.
Iris Spuria is similar to bulbous varieties, but its flowers are much larger. It easily tolerates drought and winter frosts, and in the season it pleases with variegated multi-colored petals of the varieties Transfiguration, Lemon Touch and Stella Irene.
The most important thing is to start caring for irises in early spring, and then they will blossom in time and plentifully. As soon as the snow falls, remove the shelter from the flowerbed and gradually transfer it to everyday mode.
Temperature and lighting
Irises love the sun and warmth, so flower beds can be safely planted in open sunny areas. But they do not tolerate drafts and cold winds, so take care of the protection in bad weather.
Irises are very fond of water, especially during intensive growth and flowering. In this case, you can not overfill the root system, otherwise it will rot. We recommend moistening the soil between plants at a rate of up to 20 liters per square.
Before planting, pass the top layer of soil through a large sieve and treat it with antiseptics and combicides. Choose neutral or slightly acidic soil. Be sure to carefully loosen the aisles once a week and a half so that oxygen gets to the roots.
Weeds are recommended to be removed manually, because a sprouted root can be damaged by a normal working tool. Irises do not tolerate a close occurrence of groundwater and need good drainage, with the exception of some swamp and Siberian varieties.
Fertilizers and fertilizing
Iris blooms profusely and brightly, so from early spring it needs regular feeding. First, 10 g of nitrogen per square, when the flowers begin to produce leaves. After two weeks, add 15 g of potassium and phosphorus to nitrogen, and during flowering, completely abandon nitrogen and increase the remaining dosages to 20 g.
Transplantation and reproduction
Irises are planted in spring from delenki bought in a store or harvested in autumn. Disinfect planting material with potassium permanganate, treat with a growth stimulator. Make a hole up to 25 cm, and in it there is a small mound to neatly spread the rhizome on it.
When planting an iris, the root neck should be at the level of the soil, and the distance between the flowers should be from 30 to 50 cm, depending on the size of the variety. Rhizomes can be planted in early September, and bulbous ones can be planted from September to October. Fan the leaves to the north so that the flower shades itself on hot days. Iris does not need a preventive transplant.
When the plant fades, do not forget to remove the peduncles so that they do not rot and spread the disease. If the leaves turn yellow and dry, carefully trim them in a semicircle and treat with an antiseptic. For winter, leave 10-15 cm of shoots, sprinkle open roots with soil and mulch with a thick layer of peat up to 10 cm.
Heat-loving varieties of irises will have to be dug up for the winter and stored separately. Dry the rhizomes, put them in a closed cardboard box, sprinkle with peat or sawdust and leave to winter on the balcony or in the basement. Moisture-demanding varieties need to be cut, disinfected and transplanted into pots.
Pest and Disease Control
Irises are not too painful and most often suffer from root rot or bacteriosis. Tubers accumulate water, and in combination with waterlogged soil, frost or an excess of organic fertilizers, the result will not be long in coming. Therefore, regularly inspect the flower bed, especially after winter, to immediately remove damaged tubers.
Of the fungal diseases, rhizoctoniosis and fusariosis most often develop - especially in the cold rainy spring. For prevention, do not forget about seasonal spraying with fungicides and be sure to treat the tubers before planting.
Thrips, aphids, iris flies and scoop butterflies love to eat irises, and large tubers attract wireworms and grubs. Nematodes cause many diseases, complications and developmental delays. Be sure to dig up the soil at the beginning of the season, introduce antiseptics and use insecticides.
Irises - photo
Irises are one of the most unusual flowers in the garden, because they managed to get a bizarre shape and an outlandish color from Mother Nature. Just look at the photo!